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Service Delivery

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The success of a program, as judged by its ability to achieve its intended outcomes, depends critically on how that program is delivered. Effective service delivery is not an accident; rather, effective service delivery is a result of careful planning and intention on the part of program developers. This topic encompasses a broad range of activities, from planning and implementation to outcome evaluation.

In order to develop this set of resources, PPN staff reviewed several hundreds of references related to service delivery. Despite the breadth of information available on this topic, there is a limited body of evidence on elements of effective service delivery that meets PPN's evidence standards for proven and promising programs. This page provides resources and tools on the topic of service delivery that meet PPN's standards of scientific rigor and objectivity, and will be updated as additional relevant resources become available.

Service Delivery Frameworks
Reports, Briefs, and Other Publications
Databases and Tools

Service Delivery Frameworks

Communities That Care

Communities That Care (CTC) is a system for mobilizing communities to systematically address adolescent health and behavior problems through the adoption of a science based approach to prevention. This approach is based on the identification of elevated risk factors and insufficient protective factors experienced by the community's youth population, and then selecting tested and effective preventive interventions that address these specific risk and protective factors. Over time, repeated assessments of epidemiologic risk and protective factor data are used to evaluate the effects of the community's prevention service system and guide future prevention planning.

Getting To Outcomes

Getting To Outcomes (GTO) was developed to address the gap between prevention research and practice by building capacity at the individual and program levels for effective prevention practices (e.g., choosing evidence-based practices; and planning, implementing, evaluating, and sustaining those practices). The manual was specifically designed to help schools and other organizations improve the quality of their programs aimed at preventing or reducing drug and tobacco use among youth, however the model presented can be applied to any type of prevention program.

Needs-Assets-Best Practices

This framework for prioritizing investments in children was developed to explore and prioritize strategies that occur at the intersection of community needs, community assets, and evidence-based best practices. These three standards can be used as an organizing principle to identify strategic investment priorities. This report from the RAND Corporation, Priorities for Investments in Children and Families in Caddo and Bossier Parishes, describes the development and application of the framework to the Shreveport-Bossier community in Louisiana.

Reports, Briefs, and Other Publications

Community-Based Participatory Research: Assessing the Evidence

This Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) report summarizes the state of the research evidence supporting Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR), a research method which attempts to engage the community in the research process in order to both enhance the community's capacity for problem-solving, as well as make research more relevant to the communities being examined.

Promoting Evidence-Based Practices: The Adoption of a Prevention Support System in Community Settings

Authors describe the characteristics that moderate communities' willingness to adopt the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) Prevention Support System (PSS). The most critical moderator that influences the likelihood of adopting GTO was the perceived complexity of the PSS. Those perceiving it as more complex were less likely to engage in the PSS.

Technical Assistance as a Prevention Capacity-Building Tool: A Demonstration Using the Getting To Outcomes Framework

In the context of the Getting To Outcomes (GTO) study, this article describes an effective technical assistance (TA) model designed to improve the capacity of community-based organizations to plan, implement, and evaluate prevention programming.

The Challenges of Building Local Collaboratives for Sustaining Educational Improvement

The Ford Foundation sponsored an initiative intended to help community-based organizations and central school district offices in several urban areas build collaborative partnerships. While none of the partnerships achieved the goal of improved outcomes for students, the study authors discuss valuable lessons learned.

W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook

This handbook from the W.K. Kellogg Foundation provides a framework for thinking about evaluation as a relevant and useful program tool. It was written as a practical handbook for project directors who have direct responsibility for ongoing evaluation work.

W.K. Kellogg Foundation Logic Model Development Guide

This guide is a companion piece to the W.K. Kellogg Foundation Evaluation Handbook, and provides a practical tool to help organizations engaged in the process of developing a logic model. The tool explores the principles underlying logic modeling, how to use it to frame evaluation efforts, and how to establish indicators to measure success.

Databases and Tools

A Guide to Resources for Creating, Locating, and Using Child and Youth Indicator Data

This guide serves as a bibliography of data and information resources available to those who work in the child and youth indicators field. Items covered include (1) books, journals, and other publications related to the identification, measurement, development, and use of child indicators; (2) professional newsletters focused on child indicator issues and products; (3) websites offering data at the national, state, and local levels; (4) research centers focusing on child and youth well-being; and (5) technical resources for those who would like to develop their own indicator-focused websites.

The Child Trends DataBank

The Child Trends DataBank houses nearly 100 social indicators of child and adolescent well-being, including national trend data and some state and local data, where available. This database is useful for identifying appropriate outcome measures as well as community benchmarking.

FRIENDS National Resource Center for Community-Based Child Abuse Prevention

The Evaluation Toolkit was developed to help program managers, administrators and interested others develop and implement evaluation processes that will be useful in day-to-day practice, and to help provide evidence that their programs make meaningful differences to children and families. The toolkit has four key components: Building Your Evaluation Plan, Logic Model Builder, Outcomes and Indicators, and Annotated Measurement Tools.

KIDS COUNT Data Center

The Annie E. Casey Foundation's KIDS COUNT Data Center includes data on more than 100 indicators of child well-being. The Data Center has community-level data in addition to city, state, and national data. Data can be used to create maps and charts on the site, and can also be embedded on users' websites or blogs.


This federally-run website offers access to statistics on children and families, including: family and social environment, economic circumstances, health care, physical environment and safety, behavior, education and health. It is the home of the annual report, America's Children: Key National Indicators of Well-Being.

NCCP Young Child Risk Calculator

Created by the National Center for Children in Poverty, this tool provides information about the size and characteristics of a state's population of young children at risk for poor health, school, and developmental outcomes. Risk factors such as parental education and non-employed parents can be obtained by age and income level.